N. Milenković Kikelj
Otroški oddelek, Splošna bolnišnica »Dr. Franca Derganca« Nova Gorica, Šempeter pri Novi Gorici, Slovenija
Klinični oddelek za neonatologijo, Pediatrična Klinika, Univerzitetni klinični center Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenija
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the commonest cause of congenital viral infection, with a worldwide incidence of 0.7% of all live-born children. In 5-10% of infected infants, a certain degree of CMV disease is clinically expressed at birth. Sometimes the first signs of infection develop later in early childhood. Congenital CMV infection is the leading non-genetic cause of sensorineural hearing loss and long-term neurodevelopmental impairments. Since both congenital and acquired CMV infection are possible in the neonatal period, whether clinically silent or manifested, the diagnostics and management are challenging, requiring expert recommendations. In some cases, early recognition can lead to appropriate antiviral treatment, which can alleviate long-term sequelae. Since congenital CMV infection is of clinical and public health importance, questions regarding prevention strategies have also arisen.
Key words: cytomegalovirus, congenital infection, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control.