Oddelek otroške in šolske medicine, Zdravstveni dom Novo mesto, Novo mesto, Slovenija
Otroški oddelek, Splošna bolnišnica Izola, Izola, Slovenija
Oddelek otroške ortopedske kirurgije Ortopedska klinika Univerzitetni klinični center Ljubljana Zaloška cesta 9, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenija
The process of development of the lower extremities and the spine starts intrauterine and finishes when the child stops growing. During a child’s growth and learning how to walk, paediatricians can stumble upon different developmental variations of the locomotor system. The most common among them are in-toeing and out-toeing, toe walking, genum varum and valgum, flat feet, leg length discrepancy, kyphosis, scoliosis, pectus carinatum and excavatum. Most of them are just developmental variations in specific age groups and only require clinical observation and occasionally conservative treatment. In case of clinical features suggesting a pathological cause of the deformation, the child needs to be referred to an orthopaedic surgeon or other specialist as indicated by the suspected underlying condition.
Key words: musculoskeletal development, musculoskeletal physiological phenomena, musculoskeletal abnormalities